Liver abscess may be bacterial or parasitic in origin. Bacterial or pyogenic liver abscess respond to antibiotics and need surgical treatment only if complicated. Complicated cysts are those that rupture into the intraperitoneal cavity or biliary tract, or show concomitant bacterial infection. Parasitic liver abscess are caused either by a microbe called Entaamoeba Histolytica (Amoebic liver abscess) or Echinococcus (hydatid cyst of liver). The most common symptoms of liver hydatid cyst are pain and hepatomegaly. Fever and jaundice may accompany complicated cysts.The aim of surgical intervention is evacuation and obliteration of the cystic cavity. If the cyst is localized peripherally, total cystectomy or hepatic resection is recommended because of the low rate of recurrence. However, partial cystectomy and omentoplasty are the most frequently used operations for intraparenchymal hydatid cysts. This is performed by laparoscopic removal of hydatid cyst alongwith antiparasitic medical treatment.
A malignant (cancerous) tumour that starts in the liver is primary liver cancer. There are several types of primary liver cancers. The commonest among them is Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) which is a cancer of the liver cells (hepatocytes).Many people with primary liver cancer survive this difficult disease. Surgery for liver cancer involves the removal of cancer. It is the most effective treatment option, if feasible. With our expertise, we are able to offer treatment to people who may be considered inoperable elsewhere. See the pictures below of a liver tumor we removed in a surgery lasting 6 hours. Two types of surgical procedures are used to treat liver cancer: hepatectomy/liver resection or liver transplantation. If surgery is not an option for the stage of cancer, tumor can be destroyed by radio frequency or microwave ablation, nano knife (SBRT) or embolization (TACE/TARE). We believe in comprehensive treatment and follow up care for each patient with primary liver cancer. One can lower risk of developing liver cancer by limiting the intake of alcohol and avoiding and appropriate treatment of Hepatitis B and C viral infection.
When cancer originating from elsewhere in the body spreads to the liver, it is secondary or metastatic liver cancer. The organ where cancer originated is the primary site. Their treatment depends on their site of origin. Cancer which has metastasized to the liver from certain sites can be treated effectively with even cure being possible in certain cases. This would need a careful detailed evaluation and appropriate treatment by a dedicated team dealing with these cases.
Benign liver tumours are more frequent than liver cancers. Most do not cause any symptoms. They are commonly detected when an imaging test (ultrasound, CT or MRI) is done for evaluation of a symptom of some other disease. Some common benign liver tumours include hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma. Surgical resection is required when it is on the surface of the liver and at risk of rupture and when the size is more than 5 cm or rapidly enlarging causing symptoms.